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Vol. 10, Issue 1. 2014
Geopolitics and Ecogeodynamics regions

B.A. Vakhrushev., A.B. Shvets
Geographic knowledge as a value.
Work is devoted to the problem ofpreserving the value of geographical education and opportunities to form geography geographic culture. The problemsthat could affect the change in the conceptual and applied value of geographical education in post-Soviet society.

. G. Chervanev
40 years experience in the bilateral collaboration with colleagues from Taurid University.
In the article a 40-year experience of bilateral collaboration between scientists from V. N. Karazin KharkivNational University and Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University is considered.

G. I. Denisik, L. I. Stefankov, O. P. Chyzh
Development of an integrated investigations of the nature of Ukraine.
Considered and reasonable milestones and periods of complex natural research in Ukraine marked stages:initial knowledge of nature (40-35 thousand years ago – the fourth century BC.), descriptive (V century BC. – middle ofthe eighteenth century), scientific research (XIX – beginning of XXI century). Each of the phases are separated by 2-3times. It is noted that the development of integrated natural research developed unevenly, but never stopped. Moderngeographers interested in historical research of complex developmental nature Ukraine – is not only becoming one ofthe sections of geography, but also a significant revival of the history of geography Ukraine.

S. V. Mikheli
Crimean Landscape Center: History, Basic Directions of Researches, Personalias.
Thequestions of forming of center of researches of landscapes are considered in Crimea. Basic directions of researches oflandscapes which he conducts are exposed. The estimation of kollektivnikh and personal scientific achievements of theCrimean researchers of landscapes is resulted, their role is certain in development of Ukrainian science about aLandscape

V.M. Shushnyak
History of Ukrainian Carpathians resent Day Exomorphodynamics Research And Role of Crimean.
Geographers In It. Research of exogenic relief-forming processes in the Ukrainian Carpathians wasconducted by several generations of scientists. The directions and priorities of exomorphodynamic research wereclosely related to tendency of economic development of the area. A significant contribution to the research was madeby Crimean gepgraphers, in particular A. M. Oliferov, B. M. Ivanov, V. M. Dublyanskyy, O. A. Klyukin..

Warcholik W., Galka J.
A geographer – a tour guide, a city guide?
Analysis of the theoretical simulation results of public examinations for candidates in the guide, as well as incity guide, which was carried out in order to assess students' knowledge of geography - potential staff at the touristmarket is presented. Studies have been raised in the context held in Poland in 2013 deregulation of mentioned aboveprofessions and are in addition of group works carried out in recent years [1; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8] relating to the expectationsof the tourism market in the training of personnel for queries of Tourism.In the case of students of "geography" good results at delivery of theoretical examination for a tour guide are observedcompared with the students of "tourism and recreation", which allows, among other things, to predict their goodtheoretical preparation in the case of the labor market. Thematic units with the lowest results of the solving problemsamong geographers are highlighted: history of culture and art, the service of tourist traffic, as well as tourist geography ofPoland.
With such high results among students geographers should be considered the feasibility of graduates geographical andtourism departments with some courses, training guides candidates. As part of this study, theoretical and practicalthematic blocks are implemented in undoubtedly more hours than during the course for candidates for guides. It should,however, draw attention to the fact that the approximate simulation disputable situations conducting tours on objects orstatements on any given topic, auto presentation, work with a map, driving directions and designations etc. were nottopics to be ignored also in geographical education program.Clear disproportion difficulty level of theoretical examination for candidates in city guides towards examination on guide isdefined.Among geographers there are few people who successfully passed it on the level of single percent polledpopulation. In connection with the new rules, which operate in Poland since January 1, 2014, in the absence ofverification of knowledge trainees on the state assessment, these defects can cause humiliation of the level ofpreparation of personnel in the market guide.

Y. M. Dmitruk, O. V. Stuzhuk
Cartographic modeling and soil erosion by method of plastic relief.
A studyof the possibility of using plastic card relief in large-scale mapping of soil. The prospects of integration method in thesystem of urban land use and in determining the value of land.

E. Yergin, V. Mikhailov
ethod of mathematical modeling and mapping limit humus soil horizon.
Validated mathematical models to calculate the maximum capacity of the humus horizon of soils, which can be used forpredictions of erosion degraded landscapes. The technique of GIS-mapping the calculated values of maximum thicknessof the humus horizon with the microclimatic features of soil formation on the slopes.

I. P. Kovalchuk, A. I. Kovalchuk
GIS atlas mapping of basin-river systems.
Growth of anthropogenic loadon the environment in global climate change calls for the creation of new instruments of environmental management. It isproved that such a role can perform geoecological atlas of basin-river system. The experience of geo-ecological atlasmapping of basin systems is analyzed. The concept of creating an integrated geoecological atlas of basin-river system,its structure and thematic content are substantiated. The information base and software that will be used for creation ofindividual maps is characterized. The atlas contains more than 160 maps on geoecological themes, which are groupedinto seven sections. Atlas maps will reflect the conditions and factors affecting the performance of basin- river system,the ecological condition of its components, as well as forecast of changes and optimization recommendations.

I. Kovalchuk, O. Rozhko
Actual issues of gis-mapping of land resources status and use in an administrative region.
The paper is focused on problems of land resources gis-mapping. A particular attention is paidto elaboration of a new chapter to the "Atlas of Land Status & Land Recources Exploitation in an Administrative district".Based on the proposed model structure atlas, created large-scale (1:50 000) Atlas of the condition and use of landresources Fastiv district, Kyiv region, which has more than 100 thematic maps.

I. Kovalchuk, . Trofimova
Forecasting mudflows as a way to optimize the management of mudflow hazard in mountain regions.
In article the relevance of the problem of the forecasting the risk manifestations ofmudflow phenomena in mountain regions determined. The main indicators that should be used in the forecasting ofmudflows risk are characterized. The basic methods of forecasting of mudflows are analyzed. The authors pay attentionon the importance of using information about risks of manifestation the mudflows in the planning and implementation of acomplex measures against the mudflow. In article the main directions of mudflows risk management in different periodsof mudflow activity are displayed. The necessity of creating the automated information-measuring systems, theforecasting and modeling systems, the calculation and analytical modules and the mathematical models to predict andmanagement of mudflows danger are well-founded.

T. I. Konovalova
The methodology of studies and cartography of the organization of geosystems.
Thearticle considers the basic mechanisms of the geosystems, especially their manifestations at different hierarchical levels.The technique of mapping is suggested.

V. P. Palienko, R. O. Spytsya
Problems of research of geomorphological and geodynamic dangers and risks.
The modern approaches for determination of geomorphological and geodynamic risks and dangers are analyzedand their typification is submitted. The system of factors, used for the estimation of level of geomorphological andgeodynamic dangers and risks on the territory of Ukraine is investigated. The expedience of selection of the regions withthe various degree of geomorphological and geodynamic risk is substantiated.

K. A. Pozachenyuk, R. Sh. Miemietova
Theoretical basis of landscape planning of residential areas.
Theoretical foundations of the landscape planning of the residential areas have been considered, the scheme oflandscape planning methodology for residential areas has been developed.

S. P. Pozniak
Problematic and fundamental basis of soil science.
The article is devoted to modernknowledge of soil science as a fundamental science with research subject of a unique natural body and resource - soil.Soil science is considered as a fundamental basis for new ideas, concepts and solution of problems for different fields ofapplied soil science and many other sciences. The role of soil science in addressing to the global challenges on foodsecurity and the preservation of the environment has been described. The modern and future possibilities of researchapproaches in soil science, its new techniques and methodologies have been analyzed.

L. Bilous
Analysis of remote sensing data for information inventory of geosystems.
The question of GIScreation for thel management is discussed. Data of remote sensing are defined as a source of information ongeosystems and ecological conditions of regions. The question of national classification of geosystems for the analysisof data of remote sensing is defined as actual. The technique of the landscape and geoinformation analysis of data ofremote sensing is offered.

V. M. Volovyk
Regional ethnocultural landscapes.
This article analyzes approaches to the allocation ofregional ethnocultural landscapes. In this case, landscaped complex is analyzed as the object of study of regionalethnocultural landscape studies. The study stated preference interdisciplinary approach, based on modernachievements of landscape, history, geopolitics, ethnology, social geography.

R. V. Gorbunov
History of the development of ideas about landscape dissymmetry.
In the article thehistory of ideas about the dissymmetry of landscapes is discussed. Questions of landscape dissymmetry researches inthe Crimean peninsula are separately considered.

S. V. Grishko
Historical and geographical stages of interaction between forest and steppe.
Theproblem of interrelationship and interdependence between steppe and forest, in treeless zones particularly, has beenin a sphere of especial scientific interest for over two hundred years. The article presents the general views of theleading scientists of XIX-XX centuries on this question. The period of the scientific research has been divided into 5stages: the first stage (the second half of the XVIIIth century – the middle of the XIXth century); the second stage (thesecond half of the XIXth – the beginning of the th century); the fundamental theoretical basis of the research (the 20-30th years of the XXth century); works on practical development of the steppe (the 40-80th years of the XXth century);modern state (90th years of the XXth century – the beginning of the XXIst century). Methods and principals developedby G.I. Denisik have been used to base the research on.Among the best and the most credible hypotheses on this subject are: S.I. Korzhinskiy forest ousts steppe,W.R. Williams steppe overruns forest, P. Pallas et al. anthropogenic deforestation of the steppe. Analysis of thecomponent-wise approach reveals two reasons treeless steppes: the climate and soil. Supporters of the climatehypotheses (A.G. Grisebach, K.M. Ber, A.F. Middendorf, G.N. Vysotskiy) explain the treeless steppes of arid climate.Followers of soil hypotheses divided into groups. Some (I.U. Palimpsestov, V.V. Dokuchaev, G.I. Tanfilev) see theproblem of salinity in the black soil of the steppe; while others (P.A. Kostychev, A.I. Voyeikov, Fr. Tetsman) – in thephysical properties of soils: a fineness, insufficient permeability; still others (G. Mayer, P.A. Kostychev) – flatness ofterritory and waterlogging of soils. Each of the fallowing hypotheses suggests but partial solution to the deforestationyet collectively, they have considerably worked out the problem.

B. G. Denysyk
Anthropogenous and recreational geoecotone.
In the course of natural researchesspheres of use, definitions «ecotone» and «geoecotone», structure anthropogenous geoecotone and one of options ofclassification anthropogenous geoecotones – recreational geoecotone are considered. The characteristic of threeoptions of its formation is given: at interaction natural and recreational, another anthropogenous and recreational, andalso two recreational, but qualitatively various recreational landscape complexes. In the long term it is necessary toinvestigate more in details structure recreational geoecotones and possible ways of their rational use.

S. Y. Dobrovols’ka, V. P. Krool’, G. Y. Krool’
The retrospective and geographical aspect of the study of social and geographical processes of settlement in the region.
The methods of mathematical definition ofsettlement processes and spatial visualization primitive settlement systems were considered. Indicators forparameterization of formation of settlements depending on the amount and duration of identified archaeologicalcultures are proposed. The criteria for the spatial organization of retrospective and modern settlement networkidentified.

I. M. Shorobura, O. O. Dolynska
Using of modern pedagogical technologies during geography lessons.
This article deals with technological tendencies in educational sphere, peculiarities of designing thepedagogical technologies in teaching of school geography. This paper investigates the pedagogical conditions that secureeffective use of educational technologies in the geography lessons. The meaning of the term "educational technology"is analyzed. An example of realization the thematic lessons with the use of educational technologies is given.

N. Dragan
Geochemical heterogeneity of soil moisture due to the nature.
The results of researches ofheterogeneity of distribution of salts are expounded in soils of vineyards of zone of Crimea. The Variationstatisticalanalysis of the obtained long-term data allowed to educe connection of migration and accumulation of solublesalts with position of key areas in relief, by character of the water mode, in depth bedding of water-table and by relictsalt horizons. The optimal, satisfactory and critical parameters of the water-salt mode of soils are certain for vine plants,that determines the degree of fitness of halogen soils for this culture.

H. I. Yeremiia
Constantin Hrmusachi – An Outstanding Rumanian-Speaking Scientist and Explorer.
In the article the history of geography in Chernivtsi University in Romanian period. Done historical and geographicalanalysis of the life and scientific activity of the Romanian scientist Konstantin Gormuzaki and justified his contributionto the development of geographical science . Some work has been translated and performed a thorough analysis ofthe scientific activities of Romanian-speaking scientist and researcher Constantine Gormuzaki . Displaying hiscontribution to the development of Ukrainian geography in Chernivtsi University .The greater part of Ukrainian lands before World War II was on the territory of the former USSR, while 18,1% of themwere under Polish rule, and 2,4% under Rumanian occupation. Theses facts allow us for the conclusion that, amongothers, Ukrainian geographical science includes contributions made by Rumanian scientists, namely, S. Steleanu, M.Gusuliac, D. Iliescu, I. Popescu, . Bretescu, C. Hrmusachi, R. Slemco, T. Stefuriac, etc. Research and discovery ofthe unknown pages of Ukrainian geography, biogeography in particular, is essential for development of all areas ofscientific and geographical process. Study and research scientific heritage Romanian geographers is one of themodern trends in the development of the history of geography. Research in the field of biographical helps not only tostudy history of science, but also to predict the future.
Among the pages of the Ukrainian unexplored geography and scientific heritage scientist Konstantin bioheohrafaHormuzaki. Given that the activity of Romanian scientists in Chernivtsi University poorly studied, this study is devotedto the analysis of scientific activity K. Hormuzaki and its contribution to geography. Being aware of insufficient state ofknowledge with regard to Rumanian geographers while in the Chernivtsi University, we devote the present study to C.Hrmusachi, trying to analyze his scientific activity and academic contribution to geographical science.Study goals. The present work aims at historical-geographical analysis of life and scientific activity of ConstantinHrmusachi, a Rumanian geo-botanist, and assessment of his contribution into development of geographical sciencein the Chernivtsi University.Main body. Constantin Hrmusachi was born on the 3rd of October 1863 in Chornivka (Bukovyna) in the family of aMoldavian country gentleman. After graduation from the Chernivtsi and Vienna Universities he devoted himself toscientific activity, in particular, in the field of entomology, geo-botany, biogeography, zoo- and phyto-geography. Inrecognition of his scientific contribution he was awarded a honorary degree of the Member of the Rumanian Academyof Sciences in 1919, while the Chernivtsi University awarded him the Doctor Honoris Causa in March 1931. In amonth, Constantin Hrmusachi held an appointment as a professor of the newly founded Department of Entomologyand Biogeography of said university where he soon opened entomological museum and laboratory.Constantin Hrmusachi heartily concerned himself with Bukovyna and devoted many of his works to its description. Anumber of works on bibliography list confirms the high level of scientific activity of Professor Constantine Hormuzachi.Learning Romanian geographers scientific heritage is one of the trends in the history of science, including thedevelopment of geography at the University of Chernivtsi. Analysis Research Constantine Hormuzachi Sets its roleand place in the national historiographic process as an outstanding scientist of Romanian origin, engaged in researchon current issues biogeography. Beginning as a bug-hunter, he went on as an examinant of local flora and the factorsthat influence upon local fauna on the whole. Among his major works, "Die Schmetterling der Bucovina" can not butbe mentioned where the links between geology, climate and flora/fauna distribution are described on the whole and inBukovyna in particular. His work "Beitrage zur Kaferfauna der Bucovina und Nordrumaniens Entomol" represents adescription of localities from geographical, geological and faunistic points of view, while "A New Study Into FaunaCorrelations in Bucovina" is a characteristic of fauna, geological and climatic factors that effect upon Bukovynianfauna structure.The analysis of the researcher’s principal works we conclude that C. Hrmusachi was an outstanding scientists whoweightily contributed to Ukrainian science.

A. A. Kyrylchuk
The Analysis of Evaluation Approaches of Soil Formation Potential.
At the given stage ofsoil science development the problem of soil formation potential diagnostics is of great importance, for it is directly linkedto the soil fertility reproduction. The evaluative characteristic of soil formation factor ability to provide the formation ofsoils and their specific properties within a certain period of time is the soil formation potential of those factors. The articlereviews in detail contemporary conceptions of soil formation potential evaluation proposed by different authors.

D.H.Vilenskyy one of the organizers domestic hruntozavstva 20-50-ies of XX century.
The article is comprehensive coverage scientific work of Professor D.H.Vilenskoho and its contribution to thedevelopment of agricultural research business in Ukraine, particularly in the soil. Proanalizavano main areas ofresearch scientist, describes the scientific and organizational activity D.H.Vilenskoho.

Yu. Luzovitska N. Osadcha
Features of nutrients incoming in aquatic ecosystems.
On the basis of thedata of experimental research on the experimental plot katabatic reproduced the real conditions of the formation ofmineral revenues diffuse nitrogen and phosphorus to surface and subsurface waters. The dynamics of concentrationsand patterns of nutrient removal. The connection between the removal of the test components and the volume of runoff.Established a decisive role in shaping the runoff of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions.

T. Mykhailenko
Historical and geographic local history in Ukraine.
Interest for local history as one of thevariety of regionalistics stimulates processes of revival of historic memory of a nation deprived of knowing their past forcenturies. Exploration of "recovered" legacy of prerevolutionary and diasporal scientists, large files of "secret" archive,widening possibilities of experience exchange during preaparation of large research projects gave local history a"second wind". That is why the reasearch concerns development of local history in independent Ukraine

M. V. Penno
Progression of scientific conceptions about marine landscapes.
The main milestones of themodern marine landscape science formation were concidered. Different approaches to using of theoretical definitionsand research methods system of marine natural complexes were investigated. Present-day tasks of marine landscapesresearch and possibility of highlighting marine anthropogenic landscapes were defined.

G. P. Pylypenko, O. I. Tsurkan
Types of agrolandscape structures and the peculiarities of their cartology.
Aformal solution of applied agrolandscape maps’ preparation using GIS-technologies on example of agrolandscapes ispresented. Four types of agro landscapes are featured taking into consideration landscape structure of territory andfeatures of land use. A new format of disclosing agrolandscape map content is offered.

D. Pisarev
Professor Dmytro Mykolayovych Sobolev and yis role in the development of geomorphologic knowledge.
The author gives an estimate of Kharkov University's professor Dmytro MykolayovychSobolev, characterizes his scientific ideas, way of thinking. Some scientific research research papers and theirsignificance for modern geomorphology are briefly explained

O. V. Savytska, O. M. Mikhaylenko
Development of electronic publishing based on the textbook "Landscape".
This article analyzes the concept of electronic educational resource (EER) and discusses the basicrequirements for creating such software for Ukrainian universities approved by the State Standard and the relevantregulations of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. As an example provides EER, based on the textbook"Landscape science".

O. P. Semeriaga
Analytical review methods war landscapes.
Landscapes, created during the war – arecomplex natural and human systems, whose development depends on natural and social-economic factors. Their study -the traditional problem that does not lose its relevance and constantly acquires new directions and learningopportunities. The article highlights the factors that determine the dynamics of functioning war landscapes, disclosed andanalyzed geographic and related methods, principles and approaches to the study of landscapes belligerativnyhDnipropetrovsk region , which constitute the methodological foundations of their research.

V. F. Siric
Water runoff. Cadastre of water resources use.
The article considers the river water flow, thevalue of water resources use.

V. O. Smirnov
Probabilistic understanding of the role of geotop in the differentiation of landscapegeophysical parameters.
Probabilistic understanding of the role of geotop in the differentiation of landscapegeophysicalparameters are described, shows the general patterns of influence geotopov on the differentiation oflandscape-geophysical parameters.

A. S. Sokolov
Landscape diversity: theoretical bases, approaches and studying methods.
In the paperthe main questions connected with relevance, treatment, application and methods of studying of landscape diversity areconsidered. The place of this concept in the system of geographical knowledge, its fundamental and applied value isanalyzed, the review of the main ways of determination of concrete values of a landscape variety is provided.

N. I. Sukhanova, N. V. Larin, A. V. Kiriyuhsin
Effect of endogenous hydrogen flux on chemical properties of soil.
Endogenous hydrogen seepages have been discovered spanning territories near deep crust fractures.Seepages result in circular subsidence structures that can easily be detected on satellite images. Field measurements ofmolecular hydrogen density greatly exceed possible values for its generation in the soil. Soils under the effect ofmolecular hydrogen flux are shown to rapidly change their properties. Mobility of various elements changes differently.Humus either transforms under the effects of a rapid change of oxidation potential or, possibly, hydrogenation, or isformed as more mobile, resulting in its removal from the soil profile. All of this affects morphological properties of the soilprofile and soil fertility.

Telecka M.
Terrestrial Late Heavy Bombardment (TLHB)–evidences and questions
About 3.8 billion years ago was the greatest meteoritic bombardment in the history of the Inner Solar Systembodies. The record of this event is still legible on the lunar surface, but we can find it also on the Mars, Venus or Mercury.The problem is to find traces of this catastrophe on the Earth. Tectonic plates, metamorphism and erosion obliteratesigns of meteorite impacts on our planet. In this paper I try to present the most recent data about this event on thesurface of the Earth.

. . Tykhanovych,V. I. Bilanyuk
Wind affect on the formation of avalanche situation.
Wind, as one ofclimate characteristic, is the formation and transit factor of avalanche process. In this article are presenting UkrainianCarpathians wind peculiarity. Describing wind affect on the structure of snow cower, snow structure and avalancheactivity formation. Presenting the field investigation results of snow cover structure that is formation by wind factor.The five snow bore pit in context of snow cover is illustrated and depicted. Wind affects on avalanche activity incomplex with different climatologically and relief peculiarities are researched.

V. I. Trigub
Patterns of distribution of fluorine in the environment.
The literature issues and our ownresearches concerning patterns of natural spread and human accumulation of fluorine in the environment areanalyzed. Regional patterns of distribution of fluorine in soils, groundwater and surface waters are found. It wasestablished that under modern conditions the critical factor in increasing the fluorine content in the environment isanthropogenic.

V. R. Cherlinka, Y. M. Dmytruk
Problem in creating, georectifications and using of large scale digital elevation models.
Were considering the urgent problems of creation, georectifikation and use of large-scale digitalelevation models in the realities of Ukraine. Based on the analysis of different scale DEM local area urbolandscape ofChernivtsi has been shown that the use of detailed research model steps 10-25 m and up accompanied by large errors.Therefore, to solve urgent problems of the industry it is advisable to use a DEM with a resolution of 5 meters, and insome tasks - 1 m (and more accurate), or the results may be significantly different, less representative and distorted.

D. I. Chmyshenko, D. V. Svidzinska
Analysis of landscape diversity: a quantitative approach.
The ideathat it is possible to describe the spatial configuration of landscape with some indices that are relatively easy tocompute and interpret underlies the methods of the quantitative analysis of landscape diversity (LD). The articledescribes several indicators of typological and chorological LD. The interpretation of the thematic maps constructedon this basis confirms high level of LD for mountain regions and ecotone zones. There is a need to improve thedefinition procedure of the moving window suitable size for further methodology development.

S. Shevchuk
Most of the scientific school of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Geography and Cartography (1927 - 1934).
The article highlights the composition of the leading scientists of the Ukrainian researchinstitute of geography and cartography, who acted in Kharkov as a research institution in the structure of the People'sCommissariat of Education from 1927 to 1934 under the leadership of C. Rudnicki. Using historical and source studyand a personalized approach to analyzing the way of life of the Institute of research school, the author has tried to givea comprehensive view of the leading scientists of the scientific school of the Ukrainian research institute of geographyand cartography. Studying the personal affairs of NCO workers USSR 1920, the archives and criminal cases 1930 -are biographies of scientists of the Institute on the basis of his own written biographies.

A. D. Abalakov, D. A. Lopatkin, L. C. Novikova
Mapping of stability of landscapes of a catchment basin of Lake Baikal.
The purpose of our work - working out of principles and methods of cartographical display of criteriaand sustainability assessment of landscape on an example of a catchment basin of the lake Baikal.

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Sh. R. Ibrahimov, E. V. Shakaralieva
Historical reconstruction and forming of ichthyofauna and fish parasitofauna of the Caspian sea and inland water bodies of Azerbaijan.
The fauna of fishes of Caspian Sea andAzerbaijan inland water bodies consists of respectively 123 and 112 species and subspecies, 370 and 354 species ofparasites are registered on these fishes. This fauna of fish and parasite heterogeneous in origin and is consists ofseveral faunal complexes . Modern fauna of the Caspian Sea and inland waters of Azerbaijan was formed during theQuaternary period from the species of Near Eastern, boreal plain, Ponto-Caspian marine, brackish water, boreal premountain,Mediterranean, Indian plains origin, as well as a small number of remains of ancient marine forms, of larvalhelminth that of fish that use fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. In the process of formation of the Caspian Sea duringthe desalination of water all stenohaline marine organisms disappeared and remained only freshwater and euryhalinemarine forms, and during the strong salinization all stenohaline freshwater organisms disappeared into the sea, butremained in freshwater tributaries. Therefore, modern fauna of fish and parasites of the Caspian Sea consists mainly offreshwater forms and euryhaline marine species. In case of entering of new for the fauna of marine organisms, they arein the absence of significant competition from the few marine species, easily reach large numbers.

N. S. Loboda, Y. V.Bozhok
Ways of determination of probable hydrological drought using meteorological data in conditions of climate change for rivers of the north-western part of the Black Sea.
Theapproaches for calculation of indicators of meteorological and hydrological droughts based on climate scenarios ofglobal warming were described. For identification of characteristics of meteorological droughts aridity indices werechosen, for characterizing of hydrological drought low flow indicators were selected.

N. V. Lovelius, S. V. Lezhneva
Growth of spruce in Vologda region in the era of 11-year cycle of solar activity.
The paper presents the results of measurements of the series of annual rings, the analysis of increment ofspruce, its perennial and spatial variability in the different conditions in Veliky Ustyug district in Vologda region. Wepresent the results of the research of inter-influence of 11-year cycles of solar activity on the growth of trees.

Zh. M. Matviyishyna, O. H. Parhomenko, V. M. Skorokhod
Shestovitskoy archaeological complex as to arheoturizma Chernigov.
The article is devoted the study of historical legacy of archaeological complex not far away s.Shestovicya. This object is characterized from position of changes of old economy on this territory. Found out stage ofchanges of paleoklimatu and paleolandschaftiv on an archaeological complex.

A. N. Oliferov
Crimean debris flows in XXI century.
The cases of debris flows passing in Crimea in the XXIcentury are reviewed. The geoinformation system «Debris flows of Ukraine» is proposed. The new debris flow maps arediscussed. Scientific field seminars in the debris flow basin of river Ay-Serez were organized.

Z. Pankiv
The current state of land use in the Carpathian region of Ukraine.
Based on the data of the State Land Cadastre it was analyzed the structure and geography of the land resources of theCarpathian region of Ukraine both in terms of administrative areas and within land-use lanes. It was defined the changesthat have occurred in the structure of land fund and especially of its distribution by landowners, land users, for the periodof Ukraine's independence. Natural factors of land use and features of economic activity in the region led to thedominance of agricultural and forestry land use type. Lately actively were developed the environmental, recreational andwellness types of land use that helps to improve the environmental situation and creates a positive image of the region.

A. Pasynkov, L. Pasynkova
Stability of Marine Geosystems deep zones of the Black Sea.
Theperspectives of the basin explorations and of the rational developing of the sea bottom, from the standpoint themorphostructural differentiation of the region takes on special significance in three practical aspects: steady raising of the mineral-raw material base of Ukraine, determination of the stability rating of the marine geosystems for buildingunderwater and over water objects, determination of the specific geo-ecological characteristics in every region forminimization of the negative influence on the aquatic ecosystem.The main sources of destructive phenomena and processes are gravitational processes, violation of material movingthrough the valley canyon systems, abnormal manifestations of gas and mud volcanism, possible manifestations ofseismic activity with maximum magnitudes up to 7 points.

E. Pozachenyuk, V. Tabunshchyk
Creation of niches of Crimean Prisivashya landscapes (within Djankoiskiy region, Crimea)
In the article, based on the concept of ecological niche, the authors consider the positionof Crimean Prisivashya landscapes (within Djankoiskiy region, Crimea) in the space of factors: the groundwater level(m), true altitude (m) and the thickness of Quaternary sediments (m).

A. Polonsky, I. Kibalchich
Sharing influence of the main modes of variability in the ocean-atmosphere system in the Atlantic-European sector of the temperature anomalies in Ukraine and the Azov-Black Sea region in winter.
This paper analyzes the influence of main low-frequency climate signals (oscillations) in ocean-atmospheresystem in the Northern Hemisphere on the formation of surface air temperature anomalies in winter (from December toFebruary) over the territory of Ukraine and the Azov-Black Sea region. The maps were constructed for each of the threemonths in which the predominant influence of certain oscillations in a specific area of the study region.

A.V. Kholoptsev, A.V. Bolshikh
Forecast of variability of the distribution of the flow over Ukraine with regard to prehistory variations of the surface temperature of significant areas of the World ocean.
Defined areasof the World Ocean, where the changes of the surface temperature in the past, most significantly associated withvariations in the distribution of the values of total ozone (VTO) over the territory of Ukraine. The location of these areas,which are considered as significant, consistent with the provisions of the most contrasting hydrological fronts of thePacific and Atlantic oceans, in the atmosphere above which in the respective month are jet stream. Last allowsconsidering the results were not as random, and as such, that corresponds to the ideas of wave mechanism of transferinto the stratosphere substances that are involved in the destruction of ozone. Taking into account the identified featuresof the identified models predict the variations of the VTO in a given month, corresponding to each section of the territoryof Ukraine, which is limited squares coordinate network 11. Comparison of actual changes in the distribution of thestudied characteristics, and their forecasts, confirmed the efficiency of offered methods of forecasting.

L. A. Alaeva, T. A. Deviatova, E. A. Negrobova, L. A. Jblonskikh
Current status and geographical distribution turfy-forest soils of the Central chernozem region of Russia.
The article presents results of studies onthe geographical distribution turfy-forest soils of light granulometric composition on low terraces of the forest-steppe.Their the peculiarities of morphological structure, granulometric composition, chemical and physico-chemical propertiesare investigated. Shows the effect of the geographical conditions (climate, relief, vegetation) on genetic features turfyforestsoils..

G. N. Amelichev, A. B. Klimchouk, S. V. Tokarev, E. I. Memetova
The Cadaster of karst caverns of the Crimea: past, present and future.
The history of Crimean caverns cadaster creation is considered. Modernqualitative and quantitative properties of the caves, their spatial distribution and abilities to be processed andvisualized by GIS tools are characterized. Inner structure of the cadaster is revealed as many-sided database ofnatural cavern formations of the Crimea. The main problems of cadaster maintaining and the outlooks of its use arementioned.

. V. Barannyk
Features of formation of morphogenetic properties of mountain-meadow soils of Chornogora arrow of Ukrainian Carpathians.
The article presents the results of studies of basic morphological,physico-chemical and chemical properties of mountain-meadow-brown soils that formed under the influence ofherbaceous vegetation on weathering products in the Carpathian flysch.

L. . Bezlatnia
The specific signs of the cultural landscapes of the interzonal geoekotonu «Foreststeppe-Steppe» of the Right-bank of Ukraine.
The specific signs of the cultural landscapes which determine theirrational functioning in a structure of the interzonal geoekotone «Forest-steppe-Steppe» of the Right-bank of Ukraine areconsidered. The specific signs were selected and grounded in the article. They are: enhanceable or double instability,increase of variety, feature of spatial location, dependence, from external factors, forecast of the forming anddevelopment of cultural landscapes interzonal geoekotone «Forest-steppe-Steppe» of the Right-bank of Ukraine. It isrotined that without the account of these specific signs, the rational use of the cultural landscapes in the interzonalgeoekotones will be related with some problems.

N.A. Berlinsky
Features of the bottom sediments quality formation in aquatic landscapes of the Danube estuary area.
The features of formation the level of contamination in the bottom sediments in aquatic landscapes of theDanube estuary area in modern period had been observed. The main regularities of geochemical processes andsedimentation of suspended matters depends on annual water discharge. In dry years domination of natural componentwas established in wet years this effect enhanced.

Ya. M. Bilanchyn, A. A. Buyanovskiy
Soils and soil cover of Zmiiny island: assessment of conditions.
This article embraces research materials on Zmiiny island soils and soil cover conducted for the first time recently. Fourgradual types of soils ans soil cover which reflect the degree of anthropogenic impact and deriving alterations have beenoutlined and characterised. The respective schematic map outlining soils and soil cover conditions has been alsoprovided.

S. Biletska, N. Osadchaya
The influence of physico-geographical conditions of the basin river Ros on receipt of humus substances in surface water.
There are summarizes information on the physiographic features ofthe river basin Ros. According to the nature of the geological structure and relief, found its catchment area is localdifferences. Which indicate the natural conditions that are typical for the zone of mixed forests and forest-Steppe ofUkraine.
The main types of soil had been studied in the basin of river Ros. Their hydrological regime was assessed andquantitative and group humus content was defined for each of the soil.Results of analysis for river Ros water serve in conformation of this fact.

N. N. Blaga
Morphogenesis of mushrooming residual outcrops of Red hill and mount Pugu-Khaya(Crimea).
The article is devoted to peculiar properties of morphogenesis of mushrooming residual outcrop of Redhill and mount Pugu-Khaya in Crimea. The article examines geological and geomorphological conditions in which theseforms are generated. Presents the morphological characteristic of the objects of study. The article explains the role ofindividual factors in the formation of ironclad residual outcrops.

O. J. Bobryshev, O. A. Kryvobok
Technology of operational retrieval profiles temperature and water vapour based on satellite data.
Based on AAPP and IAPP software was developed technology of operational retrievalprofiles temperature and water vapour. Validation of results showed that accuracy of retrieval changes with the altitude.Temperature retrieval accuracy – from 1.3º to 2.1º , for the water vapour – 0,2-0,5 g/kg. Presence of clouds hascaused the decrease accuracy of retrieval for 10-20%

O.S. Bonishko, O.S. Ukhal
Soil erosion Svydovets-Montenegrin natural area Polonyna-Montenegrin Ukrainian Carpathians region (within the city Rakhov Transcarpathian region).
The article provides results ofresearch of degree of soil erosion in the basin of the Tisza River within the city Rakhov Transcarpathian region.According to the humus content and grain size of brown soils have been defined and analyzed as a result of factor in soilerosion. In the basin of the Tisza found that soil erosion per year is 2,3-3,8 t / ha.

R.V. Borovskaya
Ice Conditions of the Sea of Azov in Winter Period 2012-2013.
On materials of thesatellite monitoring, data of off-shore supervisions, information of passing ships the ice conditions of Sea of Azov inwinter 2012-2013, that was one of the most warm winters of the last twenty years, are investigated,. Its mostcharacteristic and distinctive features are educed. It is set that from the end of December 2012 for early 2013 Februaryin the separate districts of sea ices created the real danger for the fish and trade ships of Ukraine and other states, thatworking in the Sea of Azov or following in its ports from the Black Sea.

M. . Bukovskiy, S. N. Dudnik, K. S. Kolkova, I. V. Surovikina, M. A. hernova
Dynamics of ice phenomenons on the rivers of Don basin within the territory of ambov region.
The article contains analysis of icephenomenons on the rivers of Don basin within the territory of Tambov region. By authors the facts of long-team phaseice condition observations were generalized, general regularities and dynamic of observable phenomenons wererecognized.

N. V. Vlasova
Taiga-permafrost geosystem Central Siberia and some of their geochemical indicators (illustrated rbogachenskoy province).
On the basis of studies showing soil-geochemical features typical of theprovince Erbogachenskoy cryogenic taiga geosystems. We consider the differentiation of some chemical elements in thesoil as a result of the radial, lateral migration and the mechanism of action of frozen barrier. Dana Indication function ofcertain species of mosses and lichens to measure changes biogeochemical environment.

O. Vovkunovych
Negative physiographic processes in the natural territorial complexes national park "Skole Beskydy".
This paper presents the results of studies of negative physiographic processes (geological ,geomorphological, hidroklimatychnyh and biotic ) in the national park "Skole Beskids." We found habitats and contactedpark landscape structure .

I. Woyna
The combination of altitude and deep structure in shaping landscape diversity of aquatic man-made landscapes Vinnytsia region.
I The article deals with water anthropogenic landscape complexes Vinnytsiaregion, their altitude and depth differentiation. Water anthropogenic types tracts formed within natural landscapes or bytheir technological transformation.The article details the distribution of water are characterized anthropogenic landscapes at high altitude landscape leveland the water inside the structure.Our results revealed that the configuration , depth, water inside the structure of water landscapes, the distribution oftracts with the depth and diversity of landscapes closely related to the placement of the water body within a certain typeof terrain.

G. G. Gavrilenko, G. E. Zdorovennova, R. E.Zdorovennov, N. I. Palshin, A. Y. Terzhevik
Thermal and oxygen regimes of shallow lake at the stage of summer heating.
Based on analysis of measured data region 2008-2011. discusses the features of thermal and oxygen regime of a small shallow lake Vendyurskogo step summer heat.Traced the process of formation, penetration and time violations seasonal thermocline and the bottom of the anaerobiczone during different synoptic conditions.

B. Havryshok, M. Potokiy
The use of cartographic modelling in the study of anthropogenic transformation of landscapes within the Tovtry on the territory of Ternopilska region..
This article deals with thecartographic modelling of results of retrospective study of nature use and anthropogenic transformation of the Tovtryridge landscapes on the territory of Ternopilska region. The map charts reflecting the ploughing-up, woodiness changeand building-up of the area for a period of more than a century and also the population and development of the region ofstudy have been given. The analysis of the map charts and interpretation of the received information have been made.The methodology of carrying out cartometric work on the maps of different eras has been described in details. Particularexamples of change in areas and configuration of forest tracts under the influence of economic activity have been given.The development and degradation (including extinction) of particular settlements by means of maps have been traced.The prospects for further research in this area have been outlined..

O. Halik, O. Budz, Z. Bebko
The oscillation and minimal flow changes at the head iver Horyn.
Applieddifferencive integral curves for discovered cycled oscillations of the minimal flow in time.

E. Galytska, V. Danylevsky, S. Snizhko
State of aerosol pollution of the atmosphere over Kyiv by means of remote studies AERONET and the impact of forest fires in the summer of 2010.
Aerosols in the Earth'satmosphere are not only air pollutants but also a factor that affects the climate. The study of the dynamics of aerosollayer properties of aerosol particles, revealing their sources in the atmosphere is one of the urgent problems of modernmeteorology, climatology, atmospheric physics, ecology. For these studies used methods of remote land-based andsatellite measurements of the optical properties of aerosol particles and atmospheric dynamics research and modeling oftransport of particles.The level of aerosols pollution over Kyiv during 2008 - 2013 was determined according to aerosols research byAERONET means and methods of reverse trajectories of air masses. As well, the ways of their transfer were submittedand rated by the contribution from natural forest fires in August 2010. During the month of observation averaged aerosoloptical thickness of the layer of Kyiv at a wavelength of 440 nm optical radiation was within 0.05 - 0.45, while in theshortest time it has changed to a much wider range.Thus, 15 August 2010, the value reached 1.5, which was associated with the receipt of aerosols from natural forestfires in the summer of that year. Overall, monthly average optical depth in August 2010 on Kyiv exceeded the averagefor that month for the entire period of observation for about 45 %.

Garbor V
Soil-forming factors redzina Podilski Tovtry.
Characterized geological, geomorphological,hydrogeological and climatic conditions of the genesis rendzyn investigated territory. Determined the main causes of soilcontrast Podilski Tovtry. The peculiarities of human impacts on rendzyny investigated territory

D. Garkusha, Yu.. Fedorov, N.. Tambieva
Spatial temporal regularities of the distribution of the methane content in the reservoirs
Methane concentration in the water reservoirs occupies an intermediate position between thevalues of its content in the water of lakes and lowland rivers, the Association with the largest number of values in theinterval 5,0-40,0 μl/l. Characterized by the decrease in the concentration of gas in water at a distance from the coastalzone to the open water area, with minimal concentrations in surface waters of the Central deep-sea areas. Its maximumconcentration in water and bottom sediments are confined to areas experiencing strong anthropogenic impact. Seasonalvariations in the concentrations of methane are characterized by increasing from spring to summer and decrease inautumn-winter period.

Yu. N. Golubchikov
The health practices of geography.
Due to the Internet the methods of healthimprovement are becoming more individualized and broad community are involved to this. Significant among them arestarting to play landscape therapy. It can be defined as the use of healing power of environment as a base forpromoting mental and physical health. One of the most intimate human-environment interactions are carried out everyday through food. Products of alien center of emergence of cultural plants, in a sense, are genetically modified tohumans.The current form of chemical and pharmaceutical medicine was originated in Western European societyduring eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Before the rise of the modern form of chemical-pharmacological medicineto replenish the energy of the person used the healing power of walks. This means of treatments are available toeveryone, because everyone lives in a particular geographical environment or landscape. All natural spheres sound inthe landscape. They are constantly changing depending on the weather, season and time of day. All our senses areinvolved in their perception. All the kingdoms of the indivisible nature and history somehow interact with our subtlevibrations and emanations, opening one of the most powerful sources of replenishment of human energy. Trustingyour instincts, experience and intuition, everyone can subconsciously set for yourself the healing power of variouslandscapes. Landscape therapy serves as a reorientation of geography from the transformation of nature and itsprotection to the transformation of man and his salvation.

R. V. Gorbunov, A. N. Vlasova, S. V. Gapon, T. Y. Gorbunova
Landscape structure of Kurzy stream basin.
The landscape structure of Kurzy stream basin in terms of morphological and position-dynamic approaches isinvestigated. Series of landscape maps are madee.

G. Grygorjeva, V. Krool’
Formation of the settlement network in Northern Bessarabia: the time-spatial dimension.
Occupancy (from the early Paleolithic) in the North Bessarabia and the formation of its settlement network(to XX cen. inclusive) for the nineteenth stages within administrative districts and major Basin rivers (Dniester and Prutrivers) was considered. Historical centers of settlement (HCS) areas were identified. Prehistoric Settlement territorialstructure (PSTS) of region for the I-XIII stages of the initial network of settlements was disclosed

V. Hryhoriychuk
The international experience of artificial recharge of underground water storage.
Thearticle deals with the problem of rational use of water resources. The distribution and feasibility of the method ofartificial replenishment of groundwater was analyzed. These examples schemes artificial groundwater recharge andexperience of use it in the world.

I. A. Guzienko, N. M. Osadch
Assessment of the main routes of heavy metals in sediments of the dnieper reservoirs.
It was considered the main source of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd, Cr in sediments of theDnieper reservoirs. The results of the processes of leaching of heavy metals atmospheric water were presented. Therole of confluent’s water was studied. It was established that the role of confluent’s water is the most important to theupper Dnieper cascade reservoirs - Kievske and Kanevske reservoirs. The work on the study of the impact of urbanareas on the heavy metal’s content in sediments of the Dnieper reservoirs was done.

S. Yu. Guliyeva, I. Ya.Kuchinskaya, E .J. Kerimova
Problems of sustainable development of mountain geosystems of Azerbaijan in the conditions of intensive anthropogenous pressure.
In article the analysis ofdifferentiation of modern arid and semiarid mountain geosystems of the Azerbaijan is carried out, dynamics of theirdevelopment under amplifying anthropogenous influence is tracked. It is revealed, that the given landscapecomplexes are characterised by weak ability of self-restoration, and even at low level of anthropogenous developmenttheir natural stability is broken and they are transformed to various kinds of natural-anthropogenous landscapes.

T. Danova, J. Matsuk
Characteristics of the energy spectrum of the thunder-storms in Ukraine.
Thecharacteristics of the energy spectrum of the mixture ratio and temperature in the troposphere Antarctic obtained byFourier analysis. Selected peaks of the spectral density of monthly averages of the mixing ratio and temperature,
which are interpreted as annual and semi-annual fluctuations. The spectral density of the random function isconsidered as the energy spectrum of functions. In the troposphere, the Antarctic shows the presence of zones ofactivity.

T. Danova, S. Petrychyts
Dynamics of heights of temperature levels in troposphere of Region of the black sea.
Heights of temperature levels are analyzed: the zero isotherm natural and intensive crystallization.Dynamics of variation of heights of temperature levels in troposphere of region of Black sea is revealed. The increaseof heights of all levels for last 40 years is shown.

T. E. Danova, O. M. Prokofiev
Modern changes wind regime Antarctica.
Presents the results of acomprehensive analysis of wind characteristics of the Antarctic continent during the period from 1979 to 2008. Basedon the calculated wind speed anomalies, analyzes their dynamics for thirty years.

T. A. Devyatova, L. A. Jablonskikh, L. A. Alaeva, Belik, I.V. Rumiantseva, E. A. Negrobova
The Structure of soil cover of irrigated territories of Voronezh region.
The paper considers the structure of soil cover territories ofVoronezh region with reconstructed irrigation system. It analyses the main factors of differentiation of the soil cover inthe Eastern and South-Eastern areas of the region and the potential impact on their negative processes as a result ofirrigation.

. V. Diedov, . . Diedov
The conditions of development of soils and flora of Podillia region in the Pleistocene and Holocen
The article presents the overview of the conditions of development of soils and flora ofPodillia region in the Pleistocene and Holocen. There has been established the cyclism of succession of plants causedby climate change. There has been presented the prognosis of the regional vegetation development under theconditions of global warming.

S. Doroshkevich, Zh. Matviyishyna
Natural conditions in Vitachev time (about 50 thousand years ago) in the Middle Pobuzhye based on the study of paleosoils.
It is reconstructed natural conditions of Pleistocene vitachevpaleogeographic stage in the Middle Pobuzhye Region after study of paleosoils. It is represented the results ofPleistocene vitachev soils paleopedological studies (macro- and micromorphological structure, content of humus andcarbonates), as well as schematic map of vitachev soil cover for investigated area have been created. Deals with certainissues concerning the natural environment of the ancient man life in vytachev time based on the research of individualPaleolithic monuments. As additional information about the natural conditions the literature data concerning the study ofthe nature of the other components analyzed: mineral make deposits, relief, ancient flora, fauna, climate, landscapes.

N. M. Dronin, N. O. Telnova, N. N. Kalutskova
Pernnial trends in biological productivity of East European agrolandscapes: remote sensing data analysis.
The combined influence of regional climate changein East European steppe biome and changing priorities of agricultural policy on the biological productivity ofagrolandscapes is considered for the three decades (1980-s, 1990-s and 2000-s). Sum annual NDVI derived fromremote sensing data of low and medium resolution is used as a reliable indicator of biological productivity of the semiaridecosystems. Spatial analysis of decadal trends are discussed for the different zonal landscapes of region in study with aspecial attention to the ongoing climate change, agricultural reforms and grain production dynamics.

S. S. Dubynina
Modern condition of a vegetative cover of geosystems in Nazarovo basin of the Krasnoyarsk region.
In the course of stationary supervision of vegetation as the main natural component of therepresentations of the steppe landscape in Nazarovo basin, from individual plant species to the overall biologicalproductivity. In General topological study of geosystems, with their own dynamics vegetable matter that characterizeregional structural-functional features of the landscapes of the Krasnoyarsk region.

K. Zhigalov
GIS use for control systems and monitoring of cinstruction processes.
Article is devoted to atechnique and GIS preparation for use as a system of control and monitoring of construction processes. The mainattention is paid for the questions of geoinformation sysem kernel optimization for the greatest overall performance.Rather much attention is paid to association of modern means of collecting, transfer and information processing for thepurpose of integration into GIS. As a application result of the described technique, GIS can be used as the mainsystems for monitoring and management in building of vulgar objects.

O. B. Zagul’s’ka
Natural factors of antropogenic transformation of landscapes in the western part of Ukraine.
On space images the degree of the anthropogenic transformation of landscapes in the western part ofUkraine, natural factors of character and scales of anthropogenic transformation of landscapes, the diagnosticopportunities of anthropogenic formations relatively properties of landscapes are established. Scopes of the receivedknowledge are shown.

V.N. Salomatin, M.Y. Zubenko
Study of the landslide area by npemfe using GIS technology.
This articlepresents one option of the method NPEMFE using GIS technology in the "landslide Lubimovskiy". This will provide anopportunity to assess the possibility of development of the territory and partially automate this process.

D. V. Ivanyk
Testing of the water-quality-parametric integral stability modeling technique on the example of the Desna river basin geosystem.
It were analyzed the theoretical and methodological foundations ofwater-quality parametrically-integral stability modeling for basin geosystems medium and large rivers. The modelingtechnique was tested and verified on the example of Desna river geosystem. The problematic aspects of the state ofbasin geosystems were determined and the mechanisms for its improving were offered.

I. V. Kalinchuk
Approaches to landscape mapping of Mountain Crimea.
The article reveals theinsufficient state of knowledge of mountain landscapes problem, including their landscape mapping, analyzes thebasic methodological approaches to landscape mapping of the Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains. The briefanalysis of the main factors of Crimean landscapes organization is given by each landscape level in accordance withthe G.E.Grishankov’s approach.

T. H. Garagyozov, S. Sh. Asadova, M. G. Mamedova, T. S. Mamedov
Rapid propagation of grape as planting stock for architectural urban design.
A method of rapid obtaining grape planting stock for horizontal andvertical gardening is proposed.

I. A. Karlovich, V. V. Prokopets
Lithology and paleogeographic conditions of amber-bearning deposits in Sambiysky peninsula and Ukrainian Polissya.
The article examines special features of stratigraphy and lithologyof Eocene-Oligocene formations in two different scale amber-bearing regions in Europe – Sambiysky peninsula(Kaliningrad region, Russia) and Ukrainian Polissya. An effort was made to compare paleogeographic conditionsunder which amber-bearing deposits had formed in both regions to determine perspectives for the Furthem amberdeposits prospecting.

S. P. Karmazinenko
Pleistocene soils of Asov lowland.
This article has been devoted paleopedological(morpho- and micromorphological) studying of Pleistocene and modern soils on the territory of Asov lowland. Theresults of morphological descriptions and micromorphological analysis of ancient soils for determination of their originand reflection of paleogeography of the time condition of their formation near the villages` Melekine and Bezimenne ofDonetsk region.

S. V. Saraykin, I. A. Karyakina
The toponimic features of Russia s Finno-Ugric and their usage for the formation of tourist image.
The article is devoted to the toponimic features and the possibilities of their usage forthe tourist image formation of the Russia s Finno-Ugric area. The topohymy of regional metropolitan centers and waterbodies which are tourist base of any area is revealed here.

. . Kvasnevska
Regional geographic Aikona (on the example of oikonomou Bershad district, Vinnytsia region)
The regional features of forming of oykonimiv are considered on the example of Bershadskogo ofdistrict of the Vinnytsya area during great while. Historical events which stipulated a nazvotvorchiy process ondoslidzhuval'niy territory are analysed. Properties of the names, which allow to use them for the study of semantics oftoponymy bases, are explained, and also the spatial and chronologic priurochenosti names of geographical objects.

. Kyryliuk
Integrated approach to the problem of the mount Crimea mesozoic stratotypes and type sections preservation.
Abiotic typology of water bodies in sub-basin of Gukiv River is fulfilled. There are 2 categoriesof water bodies in the sub-basin - rivers, significantly modified and artificial water bodies, the total amount of which is35. Allocated 26 river water bodies belong to 3 types. Identified 5 artificial water bodies and 4 - substantially modifiedwater body.

S. M. Kyryliuk, U. Kostuk
Morphological structures of Tranquility Sea in visible pickle of Moon.
Thebasic elements of Tranquility Sea in visible pickle of Moon considered. This article is a logical continuation of author’sprevious studies in which the geological and geomorphological structure of the Moon’s individual sections has beenstudied at a deeper level. As a result of these studies was constructed a series of unique maps, mainlygeomorphological and landscape in scale from 10 000 to 250 000.

G. A. Kiselyova, A. A. Zakletsky, S. E. Shirinskaya
Macrozoobenthos in associations Cystoseira sublittoral coastal and islands Rocks – Ships in the Nature Reserve Opuk
Analyzed the biodiversity ofinvertebrates in associations Cystoseira sublittoral Opuk natural reserve at a depth of 0.5-2 m. For the first timestudied the taxonomic composition of macrozoobenthos in associations Cystoseira islands Rocks-Ships to depths: 1,3, 6, 9 and 12 m. Noted 37 species of 7 types. Analysis of structural and functional organization conducted using anindex of species diversity Shannon, index of structural uniformity Pielou . To assess the faunal similarity coefficientsimilarity of species Sørensen - Czekanowski used. It is shown that phytophilous invertebrates form a complexpolimiksny zoocenoses not disturbed .

Y. Kovalenko
Neogen-anthropogenic period in the relief formation of Ukrainian Polissya.
In this articleauthor analyses tectonic movements and their impact on the relief formation of Ukrainian Polissya. Also differentpoints of view of native scientists are represented.

N. N. Kozlova D. V. Naumkin
The names of the scientists in the space of Kungur Ice cave.
Kungur Icecave is a well - known monument of nature in the Urals region. It has been known for over 300 years. Beforebecoming a popular tourist brand, cave for centuries served as the object of expeditionary research scientists, many ofwhom have left a noticeable trace in the world of science. The modern stage in the history of the cave is connectedwith the name of its first guide and guardian – A.T. Khlebnikov.

N. K. Kononova
Atmospheric circulation in the European sector of the Northern Hemisphere in the XXI century
Fluctuations of atmospheric circulation in the European sector of the Northern Hemisphere for the period1899-2012 were analyzed. The features of the atmospheric circulation in the XXI century for annual and seasonal datawere shown according to these oscillations.Impact of atmospheric circulation fluctuations on air temperature in theCrimea is shown.

M. V. Konyushkova
Digital soil mapping of solonetzic complexes in the Northern Caspian Lowland.
The paper describes the procedure of “from scratch” digital soil mapping based on automated interpretation of detailedspaceborne images (with about 2 m spatial resolution) with account for anthropogenic use. The procedure wasdeveloped at the Dzhanybek research station (Volgograd oblast, Russia / Kazakhstan) and was tested at the key plotsof Kalmykia. The procedure includes the following steps: (1) delineation of the areas with different land use; (2) thesearch for the spectral parameters informative for remote mapping of predominant soils belonging to the studiedsolonetzic complex; (3) supervised classification of spaceborne imagery with the account for land use; (4)generalization of the interpreted imagery on the basis of the portion of soil components – the creation of the map ofelementary soil patterns.

V. Korzhyk
Use of the historical-geographical approach to the study of karst evolution in territory of Bukovyna.
Karst processes and systems are dynamic and on time scales comparable with co-evolution of socionatureintegrity (modern anthropogenic landscapes). For this reason, the use of the historical-geographical approachto the study of karst with use not only traditional methods accepted in the karstology, but speleoresourcelogical,cartographic, archaeological, historical and cultural (analysis of toponymy, folklore, mythology) allows to strengthenand deepen the understanding of processes, their trend and evolutionary rates. On the example of several speleokarstregions of Bukovyna (cave «Zoloushka», the region of Sovytsa bogs, reserve «Chornopototskiy», Khotyn height)are demonstrated the mechanism and advantages of use of this approach, some concrete results.

. . Kosovets, . .
Donich limate change Crimea over climate change in mainland Ukraine.
Thearticle is based on observations of 187 weather stations of Hydrometeorological Ukraine the analysis of changes intemperature and precipitation in 1991 - 2010. compared with standard climate period 1961 - 1990gg.The analysis revealed lagging pace of global warming in Crimea Ukraine compared to continental.Trends in changes in precipitation have been identified..

S. A. Kocharli, E. M. Mamedov, A. M. Manafov, A. P. Gerayzade
Water balance of a cotton and alfalfa crop rotation in the conditions of the Kyro-Arazsky lowland.
Quantitative distribution and influence of eachelement on formation of water balance in the conditions of a cotton and alfalfa crop rotation is investigated.

O. A. Kryvobok, O. O. Kryvoshein, T. I. Adamenko, T. M. Ruban
Winter wheat crop condition assessment after overwintering using CGMS system.
Winter wheat crop condition assessment after winteringwithin the CGMS was conducted. Based on these results, the values of winter killed biomass within the regions anddistricts of Ukraine for two winters were obtained. The consistency between the measured crown temperature andwinter killed biomass, simulated by CGMS for 2011-2012 winter was analyzed.

V. V. Krylenko, M. V. Krylenko
Research of the importance and interrelations of natural factors for sediment grain-size composition and relief of the Black sea coastal accumulative forms.
The grain-sizecomposition of the coastal accumulative forms bottom and beach deposits is rather "conservative" parameter. Theanalysis of regularities of formation of the grain-size composition spatial features in different morphological zones of acoastal accumulative form can give information about feature and interrelations of the processes defining itstransformation.

E. A. Kudryan’
Features seamounts oceans.
Some features of oceanographic conditions seamounts:vortex formation, abnormal oceanographic characteristics, increased biological productivity.

Al. G. Kuznetsov
Mountain array Esci-Kermen as a geological monument of Crimea.
Geological,lithological, stratigraphical and geomorphological features of Esci-Kermen are considered.

I. V. Leonidova
Humus and chornozem soils formation on Zmiiny island.
The article contains results ofresearches assessing humus conditions of the chornozem soils of Zmiiny island, what also includes assessment ofoptical density of humic acids. The peculiar features of composition and chemical constituents of humus which derivefrom the watering conditions, influence of maternal and underlying silicate rocks, and soil salinity have been pointedout. A conclusion has been drawn on the genetic nature of humus- and soil formation on the island, as well as on theclassificatory belonging of the local chornozem soils.

N. Leushina
Climate of Gremyachinsk.
In article climatic features of the city of Gremyachinsk and itsvicinities on the basis of 18-year series of observations on a meteopost in the city of Gremyachinsk are analysed.

A. Lisowskiy
Physical properties typcal chernozem of Podillia-Dnister region.
This paper presents theresults of studies of structural and physical state of typical chernozem Podillia-Dnister region. Analyzed the change ofphysical parameters in the genetic profile of the typical black soil . We found vnutrishnofatsialni features physicalcondition studied soils. Determined that the development of typical chernozem and long use as arable land,accompanied by the destruction of the structure, water resistance change of the structural units form bryluvatyhseparately.

V. Lysenko
Modern carbonate formation in Laspi Bay beach area is a product of processes of interaction the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere (South Coast of Crimea).
An example of acold shelf degassing is the outputs gases from the underwater part of the beach area Laspi Bay. The composition ofgas bubbles fluid presents methane, ethane, propane and hydrogen sulfide, it testifies to its deep genesis. The resultsof geological research outputs cold degassing of hydrocarbons in the underwater part of the beach area of the byLaspi confirm that carbonate structures with oasis of life is formed in the active geodynamic environment around thegas jets. It is represented by gravelstones and pebble beds that are cemented with aragonite and calcite. Theformation of carbonate cement conglomerates in the beach area is connected with vital activity micro –and macrofauna and flora local biocenosis. High speed cementation of pebble allows to suppose that modern carbonatestructures from great depths of the Black Sea and other have a younger age.The authors hypothesize that archaea receive oxygen (for the formation of organic substances and oxidation ofcarbon and sulfur) at the expense the decomposition of water. In the future, this method of producing oxygen wasadopted by cyanobacteria and fauna. Therefore, at the bottom of the Black Sea hydrogen sulphide zone at bacterialmats with modern degassing aerobic fauna finds life are possible.

L. Mamontova, S. Kryachok
The no-fly automated system of small rivers` depth`s measurement.
Theno-fly automated system of small rivers` depth`s measurement which is based on a combination of a differentialmethod GPS-definition of the pro-measured vessel`s coordinates both the method of depth`s measurement with sonicdepth finder and the method of the vessel`s management was examined in this article.On the central station thedigital card with a relief for a pro-measured zone of the reservoir is formed and the position of a pro- measured vesselon the tacks is controlled thanks to the coordinates of a pro- measured vessel and depth`s measurements with sonicdepth finder.The offered system allows to raise the level of depth`s pro-measured works.

Marszelewski W., Piasecki A.
Changes in sewage management in Poland in the years 1990-2012 and their consequences
The article reports on the changes which have taken place in sewage management in Poland since 1990. Theamount of industrial and municipal sewage which needed treatment was observed to have declined from 4.11 km3 downto 2.50 km3 in a year. Furthermore, changes in wastewater structure were analysed with respect to the degree andmethods of treatment. The amount of untreated wastewater was reported to have decreased considerably from 33 to6.6%, whereas the share of wastewater treated with heightened removal of biogenes was found to have increased. Thatresulted from the construction of new sewage treatment plants, particularly municipal ones whose number rose from 588up to 3191. Individual household sewage treatment plants became a new trend in wastewater management (over 57thousand plants were constructed in the years 1994-2012). Financial outlays directed to sewage management and theirstructure were presented. The rising role of foreign subsidies whose share in total costs increased from some to over30% in the years 2000-2012. The final part of the article indicates that despite considerable financial outlays andimprovements in surface water quality there is still a relatively big inflow of polluted rivers into the Baltic Sea. In general,the load of nitrogen (from 100 to 200 thousand tons a year) remains at the same level as 20 years ago. This proves thatthe problem of water pollution with biogenic substances in rural areas is still unsolved. These substances are currentlythe main “sources” of the inflow of biogenes into river and lake waters, and consequently to the Baltic Sea.

A. V. Matsibora
Holocene pedogenesis of floodplain soils of small rivers in forest-steppe of Pobuzhya
Themain characteristics of soil forming processes on floodplains of small rivers in forest-steppe of Pobuzhya areconsidered. The dynamics of humus, carbonates and heavy metals concentration changes at chronological intervalsof Holocene (Subboreal, Subatlantic) was analyzed. The main regularities of natural conditions and their relations withphysical and chemical data were identified.

S. Melnyk, N. Loboda
Fluctuations of the runoff of the rivers of the top and average Dnestr (within Ukraine).
Modifications in character of oscillations of an annual runoff of the rivers of the upper and average Dnestrlast decades on the basis of the cluster analysis are installed. It is shown that differences in annual runoff fluctuationof a mountain and left-bank part of the upper Dnestr gain in strength.

G. B. Moroz
Relief as a main faktor of kontrast of soil cover of medium-dry steppe pedoekoton of North-Western Prichornomorya.
Kontrast of soils of mkrokaten of mediunm-dry steppe pedoekoton of North-Western Prichernomorya has been characterized. Based on indicators of kontrast mathematically identified objectivelyexisting in nature soil groups of pedoekotons mikrokatens and determined the extent of their similarities anddifferences, both among themselves and from the adjacent soil pedoekoton subtypes – south chornozems and darkchestnut soils. By contrast ratio evaluated classification and taxonomic significance of individual indicators ofpedoekotons soil properties.

K. L. Myrza, V. A. Ovcharuk
Analysis of the formation of cold period floods on the rivers of the Crimean mountains.
The article analyzes the conditions and causes the formation of floods on the rivers of the Crimean mountains inthe winter-spring period, and also the dependence its values on the major factors that they are formed.

L. E. Nazarova
Climate of the republic of Karelia (Russia): air temperature, variability and change.
Variability of the air temperature over the territory of Karelia during 1950-2011 is considered. It is shown thatpersistent excess of the annually mean air temperature over its climatic norm is observed during the last 20 years. Atthe same time, a significant warming of winter months and shift of start dates for climatic seasons is revealed. Anincrease of the soil temperature at depths up to 320 cm is registered, and observed variability is more remarkable insouthern regions of Karelia.

Yu. Nakonechnyy, P. Vykhopen
The morphological features of organogenic soils of the river Western Bug floodplain.
The morphological features of organogenic soils of the floodplain of the river Western Bug have beenanalyzed: color, moisture, content, grain size, structure, and neoplasms including capacity horizons, its structure.

I. M. Netrobchuk
Monitoring of the state drainaged lands in district Manevyshi of Volyn region.
It wasdescribed separated blocks of reclamation monitoring drainaged lands in district Manevyshi of Volyn region in thearticle. Twenty four reclamation systems are working in the district. The square of drainaged lands is 44000 ha. 26650ha belowe to agriculture lands, another lands are ineffective. The prediction of depth ground water and productivereserves of moisture in soil is the main criterion of reclamation situation on drainage lands. According to prediction itwas elucidated what levels ground water on the depth 0,5-1,25 m are faveurable for crops period in the area 24028 haand reserves of moisture on begining vegetation is optimum on 22438 ha reclamation lands. Determined that most ofthe part reclamation systems are ineffective are need reconstruction. The considerable changings of soil’s propertywere beginning because of drainaged reclamation. As a result degradation processes are widened on hudromorphicsoils. It was offered measures for impoving modern agroecological state drainaged lands in district Manevyshi.

A. R. Nikiforov
Relic endemic of the flora of the Mountain Crimea Silene jailensis N.I. Rubtzov (Caryophyllaceae) as a biogeographical phenomenon.
Relic endemics create a special group of species whichconstitute a part of regional floras. It has been clarified that the seasonal development of the plants of relic endemicSilene jailensis (Caryophyllaceae) in the upper belt of the Mountain Crimea on the edge of mountain pasture directlydepends on the duration of vegetation of the plants, the progress of thermal factor, the period with the maximal for thelocal climate temperature of the air. Typically for the local climate of mountain pasture the cyclic growth of a shootlasts for 2 seasons, the phases of the development of a shoot are confined to the gradual increasing of the airtemperature in late spring and early summer and flowering – to the mature thermal optimum. In colder summerconditions accompanied by the shortening of the vegetation period the development of the plants of this species wouldhave been completely ceased.

A. A. Nikiforova, A. R. Nikiforov
The relief peculiarities by the pock Shagan-Kaya of the upper belt of the southern nacroslope of the Mountain Crimea and relict endemic species of the flora of Mountain Crimea Silene Jailensis N.I. Rubtzov (Caryophyllaceae).
The relief of the scree Shagan-Kaya in the upper belt of theCrimean Mountains consists of structural elements characteristic of classical screes. There is evidence of growth ofplants of relict endemic of the flora of Mountain Crimea Silene jailensis N.I. Rubtzov (Caryophyllaceae) on colluvialplumes. It was found that diasporas of this species are being transported on the scree, but the plants have restricted
ecological confinement and grow only in the cracks of large stones and boulders.

V .A. Ovcharuk, E. I.Todorova
Statistical parameters maximum water discharge and layers peak flow rivers of mountain Crimea.
The results of the statistical analysis of the characteristics of the warm period floods on theCrimean Mountains Rivers, obtained on the basis of modern databases.

V. A. Ovcharuk, A. V.Traskova
Substantiation of the characteristics of slope inflow during a spring high water on the right bank of the river Dniester.
The received calculated values of the characteristics of slopeinflow during a spring high water on the right bank of the river Dniester. The possible influence of local factors on theobtained values of maximum component module overland inflow, by generalization of this parameter in the territory.

I. N. Oleksienko, V. I. Zatula
Effect evaluation of geographical position on main characteristics of frost.
The nature and character of depending on the average dates of first and last frosts, and the average length ofthe frost-free period of physiographic conditions of the location of the station. It was determined that a statisticallysignificant effect on the underlying characteristics of frost has latitude and altitude of the station.

Yu. Yu. Onoyko
The morphogenetic and the halogeochemical peculiarities of the coastal marshes of the country between the Dnipro and the Molochna.
It has been described the major morphogenetic andhalochemical features of the coastal marshes of the country between the rivers the Dnipro and the Molochna on thebasis of analyzing the results of field and laboratorial-analytical studies of the author.

O. Palanychko, Yu Yushchenko
Natural-anthropogenic systems of the Peredkarpattia rivers (within the limits of Ukraine): floods effect analysis.
This article is devoted researches of main geoecological problemsthat have arisen in the natural-anthropogenic systems of the Peredkarpattia rivers (within the limits of Ukraine).Thorough analysis of the data of long-term observations proves that the Carpathian Region represents the mostdangerous part of the territory of Ukraine with regard to floods and other hazardous hydrologic phenomena, theseoccurring in the result of interaction of certain natural and anthropogenic factors. The study results are expected to byuseful at the stage of engineering communications, in particular, bank protection, design and operation, as well as inthe process of development of schemes for rational use and protection of Peredkarpattia rivers’ riverbeds andfloodplains.

A. G. Panin
Going near the study of eogeodynamics of geosystems and its constituents on the example of Western Crimean Foot-hill.
In opinion of author, into the scopes of eogeodynamics geosystems arefully written with their morphological, functionally-dynamic and ecologic parties. The results of landscape researchesof author are in-process shown in Western Crimean Foot-hill: illumination of pin-transitional properties of territory;ground of individually-regional landscapes; reasons and conformities to law of differentiation of topogeosystems;landscape mapping; show of epifacies and dynamic rows of geosystems; combination morphological and geosystemapproaches in landscape researches. The tasks of further researches are set.

T. V. Pankeeva, O. A. Mironyuk, A. Ur. Pankeeva
Researches of bottom landscapes of the coastal zone Tarkhankut peninsula (Crimea, Black sea).
The landscape map of the bottom landscapes was made on the basis ofunderwater researches for a coastal zone of the Tarkhankut Peninsula. Underwater researches of a coastal zone ofthe Tarkhankut Peninsula were conducted by a method of detailed studying of key sites with carrying out landscapeprofiling. Data can be used for priority water areas for reserve.

V. I. Perederiy
The features of mineral composition of holocene soils in the territory of Ukraine.
Themain features of mineral composition of Holocene soils in the territory of Ukraine are characterized. The differences ofclay substance for the soil types and its zonal and regional features which are explained by paleogeographicalconditions of formation.

L. S.Pesochina
The rhythmical dynamics of pedogenic processes and the climatic humidity in the steppe of the Azov province during the second half of the holocene.
The comparative analysis of recent andburied soils of archaeological monuments provides important data for the reconstruction of paleoclimate as well aspedogenic processes. Investigations were carried out in the Rostov region. The study concentrated on thechronosequence, comprising paleosoils buried some 4000, 3700, 2400, 2000, 1900, and 1200 years ago underarchaeological monuments and modern soils. Considerable changes in soils at some chrono-cuts were observed.These changes were characterized by cyclicity with different temporal intensity and amplitude of soil parameterchanges for some periods. Leaching of salts (easily soluble, gypsum, carbonates) as well as the development ofsolonetzicity processes were the most dynamic effects and were closely connected with climatic conditions. Varioustemporal lengths in the soil-forming cyclicity were revealed. The 2000- and 1000 years- rhythms were the bestdistinguished. It has been established that there were some stages of climatic changes in humidity for the second halfof Holocene. The middle of the III-d millennium B.C., the middle of the I-st millennium B.C. and XIV-XV centuries A.D.were characterized by the resonance interaction of humid maxima both 2000 and 1000 cyclicities. The Scythian humidmaximum was alternated by sharp aridization, the power of which was comparable to the Subboreal xeroterm about4000 years ago. The Middle Sarmatian Epoch was the transitional period from the arid conditions to the more humidones. The arid climate of the Early Middle Ages was alternated by humid maximum in the XIV- XV centuries A.D.

.. Petrenko, S.S. Zhugaylo, T.M. Avdeeva, S.N. Adzhiumerov
Content of petroleum products in Water, Ground Deposits and Soils of Recreation Area of Kerch and Kosa Tuzla Island.
Concentrations ofpetroleum components is presented in water, ground deposits and soil of recreation area to Kerch and Kosa TuzlaIsland. It is indicated that the places of mass recreation (Municipal Beach, beaches in the districts of s. Geroyevskoye,s. Podmayachnoye, Stariy Karantin, Kosa Tuzla Island) from the chemistry and toxicology points of view don’t presenta threat for the public health.

Piasecki A., Marszelewski W.
Changing size and structure of water consumption in Poland in the late twentieth and early twentyfirst century
Since the early 1990s the downward trend of water consumption has been observed in Poland, which alsoapplies to urban areas. The paper presents the analysis of changes in water consumption in Poland in the years 1990-2012. The study takes into account the structure of water consumption as well as its diversity in urban and rural areas.Moreover, the dynamic pace of development of water supply infrastructure and increase of its accessibility for ruralresidents is indicated. As a result of the study it was revealed the total amount of water consumed in Poland wasreduced by 24%. The biggest, almost 36 percent drop, occurred in the operation of the water supply system (35.9%) aswell as agriculture and forestry (35%). Water consumption in production decreased by about 19%. There was asignificant difference between the structure and the trend of changes in water consumption in rural and urban areas. Inthe countryside the largest share in the structure of water consumption was taken by production and irrigation, and incities - production and households.Moreover, a drop by 20% was recorded in specific total water consumption, and it was stressed that in the cities itwas more than twice as high (46%). In the case of rural areas, this indicator value increased by 15%. In addition, themain factors determining the decrease in water consumption were identified, which included, among others, theliquidation of many industrial plants as a result of political transformation and the introduction of a general system ofwater consumption metering (water meters).In conclusion, from the ecological point of view, a significant reduction in water consumption in Poland should byconsidered beneficial. At the same time, it needs paying attention to the economic and technological effects of the dropin water consumption..

M.G. Pipia
Number of days and duration of hail-hits at the territory of Georgia.
According to materialsof observation carried out by 50 meteorological stations of Georgia over a period of 1961-2012 a number of days andduration of hail-damages, as well as periods of hailfall and amount of precipitation are studied.

O.V. Riabokon
Natural-anthropogenic Landscape Complexes: Hydrological Types.
Naturalanthropogeniclandscapes are a special category of anthropogenic landscapes complexes that need proper attentionand protection nowadays. The article deals with types of hydrological natural-anthropogenic landscapes. It is pointedout that these landscapes are a special category of anthropogenic, not natural ones. The author of the articleconsiderstheir common features and further ways of learning.

G. V. Samokhin, E.Yu. Sharko
Dynamics of formation modern subaqueous water chemical deposits river by Krasnopeshcherna. Results of field experiments.
Corrosion and chemical sedimentation are the majorfactors karstic speleomorfogenesis. For understanding of dynamics of formation modern water chemical deposits bychair of physical geography and geomorphology of Taurida National Vernadsky University is made field experiment inthe largest cave of the Crimea – a Red cave (Dolgorukovskaya yaila) . The organized Eight stationary points ofsupervision in near part of the Red cave and on a tuff platform out of a cave. In each point took place two tablets –from copper and from limestone. Copper tablets, are used for prevention of sedimentation of microorganisms, andcalcareous model natural breed. Cave sites with various morphology and a hydrodynamic mode are chosen as pointsof supervision. Criterion for an assessment of dissolution accumulation definition of change of mass of tablets isaccepted. The analysis of a mineralization and the water temperature depending on an expense of a stream is inparallel carried out. On copper tablets in a cave process of sedimentation of carbonates practically didn't happen. Andout of a cave, on calcareous tablets, sedimentation of carbonates happens much quicker, than on the copper. Thisresult confirms influence of microorganisms on efficiency of growth of a tufa. Experiment was intended for time of fullhydrological year. As a whole in a year on all sites there is an increase in mass of tablets. The accurate interrelationbetween the raised mineralization of a waterway and quantity of the besieged carbonate of calcium is traced.According to our data the mineralization of karstic waters in a cave Red decreases down on a stream. By results of aseries of measurements maximum mineralizations it is observed in the most distant from an entrance to ameasurement point - the fifth siphon – 0,2161 g/l, and minimum at an exit from a cave – 0,19625 g/l. Mineralizationand temperature deviations in the big or smaller party from linear dependence is explained first of all by existence ofinflows. Value of a mineralization and water temperature in all inflows differs from similar indicators in the main coursefor 3-8%. The mineralization and temperature fluctuate during various seasons of year within 10% that depends ondynamics of intake of surface and condensation waters.

A. Y. Sanin
Process f bottom erosion of rivers as part of functioning of coastal morphosystems.
Bottom erosion have been calculated forrivers of different regions of the coastal zone of the Crimea. The results havebeen presented in numericaland graphical form. Then they have been compared and differences between the variousregion sand within them have been indicated as well as the reason soft hese differences. Average values of bottomerosion forrivers of different regions of the Crimea differ several times. Values depends on the general char acterofthere lie fand on the lithology of the under lyingrocks. The Southern coast characterized the greatest speeds ofbottom erosion and their internal differences. The Northwestern Crimea characterized the small estspeeds of bottomerosion. The flat relief is the reason of this differences.

R.B. Semashchuk
Morphological features and gross chemical composition of initial carbonate soils tract Bila Hora.
The results of studies of key morphological and chemical properties of carbonate soils.

D. O. Syvyck, O. A. Babich
Erosion process on Kanvschin.
The greatest density ravine partitions inUkraine is observed on slopes of valleys of the large rivers, in particular, considerable ravine areas are Kanevsky -Rzhishchevsky, Slovechansko - Ovruchsky, Pridneprovsko - Podolsk, Novgorod - Seversky and Donetsk.In territory of Kanevshchiny the big areas of the fertile earths too occupy ravines. These are such as: Baking, Knjazhy,Cold, Malanki, Hmelnjansky which is one of the largest ravines of Europe. Its depth makes 70. It has hugebranchings - 23 main inflows and 480 smaller.Erosion (from an armour. "Erosio" - Corrosion) - process of washing out or washing off of soils and rocks waterstreams, a part of the general process denudatsyy (" denudatsyya " - set of natural processes of destruction of rocksand carrying over of products of destruction to low places).Allocate a soil erosion, erosion ravine . Erosion of soils occurs under the influence of a superficial drain of time waterstreams, at their concentration there is a jet washout which under certain conditions turns in ravine erosion. Ravineshappen deep (to 50 - 80) and long (to 20). If a ravine deep after a downpour water falls on a bottom the presentfalls, washing away more and more a fertile soil, destroying fields, meadows. From a small stream, a small ravine insome years there is a big ravine with many sleeves which destroys the earths therefore annually the ravine destroysto 10 hectares of an arable land. Besides, it clay and sand.The Water erosive forms of a relief are formed by fluid waters. These are river valleys, beams, ravines. They have thebig distribution to Ukraine that is caused by humidity of a climate, presence of integumentary breeds which easilycollapse time streams. Growth of ravines destroys a surface, soil, complicates a city building, roads, industrial targets.

K. Slyzka
Approaches to the study of high air temperature on the territory of Ukraine in the context of current climate changes.
Temperature is one of the parameters that are subject to the greatest variability,especially in the last decade, in the context of global climate change. Approaches and research techniques to hightemperatures which have been proposed by scientists for Ukraine were discussed in the article. The temporal andspatial distribution of heat waves during June - August 1961 - 2010 in Ukraine were analyzed and an increase of heatwaves cases, their duration and intensity in the past decade were found.

L. Sotskova, L. Garkusha
Development of secondary vegetable groupments and synantropization of flora of Near-Sivashunder influence of irrigation.
In the article the separate aspects of transformation of nature ofNear-Sivash and synantropization of his flora are considered under influence of irrigation.

L. V. Strashevska
Phase of the study of the geological heritage Podolia.
Research geosites in Podoliahas its own specific features, their national traditions and a long history as a geological study of the area, and practiceconservation of geological objects on it. Based on the analysis of processed references degree and depth ofknowledge of the geological patterns, awareness need to preserve objects of inanimate nature and socio- historicalsituation, we in Podolia with three stages geosites study: Initial, Soviet and modern. Each stage has its own featuresand characteristics.

O. . Strutsinska
Integrated approach to the problem of the mount Crimea mesozoic stratotypes and type sections preservation.
The article uncovers peculiar features of granulometric composition of soils located inthe coastal line and on the shores of river estuaries in the North Western Black Sea region, as well as in the adjacentwatershed areas. General patterns of humus accumulation depending on the hypsometric levels of disposition havebeen pointed out. Coefficients of the relative accumulation of humus (CRAH) and of the profile accumulation of humus(CPAH) have been calculated.

E. I. Tymokhina, A. B. Klimchouk
Morphogenesis of rock shelters with through openings (the Inner Range of the Crimean Mountains).
The paper presents the results of mapping of “holey” rock shelters and analysesconditions of their occurrence and morphology. A distinctive feature of these rock shelters is the presence in their vaultof one or more through holes. It is shown that the formation of both the rock shelters and their internal morphology isfully consistent with the concept of hypogenespeleogenesis. Processes of weathering and denudation are involved intheir modeling, further expansion of holes and destruction of the remaining bridges to form amphitheaters.

S. V. Tokarev, A. B. Klimchouk
Developing of the Crimean-Mountain approach for groundwater vulnerability assessment in karst regions.
The approach for vulnerability assessment of karst groundwater in theMountainous Crimea developed on the base of European methods and adapted to regional karst aquifers features isproposed in the article. The results of groundwater vulnerability assessment and mapping via use of this approachshould act as a ground for effective protection of karst groundwater resources and its intakes in the MountainousCrimea.

N. I. Trtik
Features of saliniti soils rice systems the Odessa region.
The main tendencies andregularities of formation a salt profile of soils rice systems of Odessa region. It is established that cultivation of cultureof rice promotes improvement of their salt mode – the desalinization of a soil profile and reduction of stocks watersolublesalts is observed.

V. I. Trigub, N. A. Popelnitskaya
Soil-geographical researches of south of Ukraine in the second half of the XIX - first half of the century.
The historical aspects of the formation and development of soil-geographicalresearches of south of Ukraine in the second half of XIX - early XX century are analyzed. Three periods of soilresearches are determined. The basic scientific achievements and contributions of individual scientists in soilgeographicalresearches of these periods are highlighted.

Environmental assessment of water quality of the river Stavy rivne region.
In the article the environmental assessment and valuation of ecological water quality became as of 2013.

I. Tzapok
On the issue of hydro-ameliorative measures in Bahnensk Valley.
On the territory of thevalley Bagenskoy are functioning open and closed drainage network channels. Studies have shown that by one of themost common and effective methods of amelioration is closed potter drainage.

O. I. Tsurkan
The reclamation condition of the Southern Chernozems of the Nizhnednestrovskaya Irrigation System.
The article gives an estimation of the reclamation condition of the Nizhnednestrovskaya ISsouthern chernozems by water-salt, physical, chemical and agrophysical parameters at regular and limited-samplingsprinkler and drip irrigation. It is found that limited- sampling sprinkler and drip irrigation of the soils by Dniesterfreshwater led to desalination, disruption of cationic equilibrium in the absorbed bases, development of secondaryprocesses (irrigation) alkalinization, deshumification, descarbonization, and soil seal.

E. A.Cherenkova
Drought in Ukraine under the influence of quasi-biennial oscillation of global atmospheric processes.
Regional patterns of distribution of decadal precipitation and frequency of strongatmospheric drought on the territory of Ukraine in May and June when compared to quasi-biennial oscillation phasesof the equatorial stratospheric winds in the period 1953-1990 using observations from weather stations and reanalysisdata. It was shown that a drought frequency better corresponds to the spatial distribution of winter wheat cropchanges in different phases of quasi-biennial oscillation rather than a decadal precipitation.Regions with increased frequency of severe atmospheric drought in May and June at the twenty-year period at theturn of the 20-21st centuries compared with nearly forty-year period from the middle of the last century were identified.